Koine participles are such a big part of the language that an understanding of their use is essential to translation. Koine participles are verbal adjectives: as an adjective they are modifiers with gender, number and case; as a verb form they have tense and voice, and can potentially take a direct object.
English has participles. Consider the following sentences, which illustrate two major uses of the English participle:
While walking to the store John saw his friends.
The man walking to the store saw his friends.
In these sentences, the participle is the word ‘walking’, which is clearly a verb form related to the verb ‘to walk’, but which also has an adverbial aspect (the first sentence) or an adjectival aspect (the second sentence).
In the first sentence, the phrase ‘while walking to the store’ gives additional information about what John was doing when he saw his friends. It could…
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